Malaysia’s GERD has increased since 2008. From RM6,071 million in 2008, expenditure on R&D increased gradually up to RM17,685 million in 2016. GERD in 2016 is three times than that in 2008. However, GERD has decreased in 2018, from RM17,685 million in 2016 to RM15,060 million in 2018. Nevertheless, it is still recorded as the second highest GERD to date.